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SOL to complete prior to starting your programme of studies

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During your first week we will be completing some group activities to help you to get to know one another and also to start to build the foundations of your anatomy knowledge. These exercises will help you in your first week and will be reviewed as the modules start. The teaching team appreciate that students will all be coming from different learning environments, have had a range of learning experiences gained different knowledge and that within the group there will be students with different learning styles and skills. This SOL package is designed to give you all a basic understanding before you start. There are lots of resources available to help with this, we have included at the bottom some recommended books which will benefit you during the course. You will need to access an anatomy text to answer these activities.


Activity 1 Anatomy

The body is made of three basic shapes of bones, Long bones, short bones and flat bones. Can you give of examples of each type?

Long Bones:

Short Bones:

Flat Bones:


Activity 2 Anatomy

Can you label all of the bones of the skeleton below?


Activity 3 Anatomy

There are different types of joints within the body, there are fibrous joints and synovial joints. Synovial joints can be further classified into categories depending upon the shape of the joint surfaces, some of the more common categories are hinge joints, ball and socket joints, gliding joints, saddle joints, pivot joints and ellipsoid joints.

What does each type of joint look like? Identify an example in the body of each?

Fibrous joint:

Synovial hinge joint:

Synovial ball and socket joint:

Synovial gliding joint:

Synovial saddle joint:

Synovial pivot joint:

Synovial ellipsoid joint:


Activity 4 Anatomy

As well as bones and joints our musculo-skeletal system is also made up of other structures, describe each of the structures below and consider their role within the musculo-skeletal system:

Joint capsule:






Activity 5 Anatomy

When we look at anatomy and movement of the body we use the starting point / position of the body called the 'anatomical position' What is the anatomical position?


Activity 6 Definitions

Before exploring a topic you must always be sure that you understand the key words, terms or phrases that are used. A great deal of confusion can arise if two people are working towards what they consider to be the same goals but have a different understanding of terminology. For example if a person has diabetes it could be presumed by one person that this was type 2 and non insulin dependent when in fact they were type1 and were insulin dependent.

Another area where confusion is common is in the use of acronyms. If a student told me that a person had PID I might presume that this was pelvic inflammatory disease and would be confused if the patient were a man who in fact had a prolapsed intra vertebral disc. In order to avoid making mistakes it is wise not to use acronyms.

If we are confused by those who work with us imagine how the patient must feel. A lady was diagnosed with schizophrenia when she responded in the affirmative to a Doctor who asked if she heard voices; in fact the lady took his question literally and meant she heard the voices of people who were speaking, many years later she was diagnosed with Aspergers syndrome. On the other hand patients can say things that we might not understand or may take out of context. An occupational therapist was told by a lady 'I get fast in the bath' the therapist not realising the patient meant stuck could not see the problem.

Keep a record of words that are new to you with the meaning. If you are not sure of a words meaning make sure that you look it up; guessing can lead to potential error. If you write and keep your own glossary of terms that you have not come across before or do not understand you will find this invaluable. In the table are some commonly used terms which you can use to start your own glossary.

You will also find it useful to add in a description of the context in which you first came across the word.



Plane of movement

Movements of a joint can be described by their direction and plane of movement

Saggital plane

Divides the body into symmetrical left and right halves

Transverse plane:


Frontal plane:








Medial rotation


Lateral rotation:






Activity 7 Anatomy

Describe each of these movements and demonstrate them at the shoulder or elbow joint, what plane would each of these move through?


Flexion is the movement of a joint taking the part of the body forward from an anatomical position in the sagittal plane. An example is shown for shoulder flexion but be aware that knee flexion is an exception to the rule and also shown below:

Shoulder flexion Shoulder flexion knee flexionKnee flexion




Medial rotation:

Lateral rotation:




Activity 8 Self Reflection


There are lots of occasions in life when something happens which shapes our future development. Often we are not aware of these events or of the significant impact that they have upon our future. As a Physiotherapy student you will need to become aware of events and your role in them and how you can modify your own behaviour to make improvement in the future. All health professionals are required to reflect, the ability to reflect on clinical practice will be highlighted throughout the programme this activity will encourage you to begin the reflective process.

Think of an occasion either as a student or in the work place when you have been made to feel uncomfortable.

Briefly outline the incident

How did you feel?

How do you think the other party/ies felt?

Is this fact or assumption?

Did you ask them how they felt or were you basing this on how you would have felt or perhaps on information fed to you by a third party?

Why do you think they acted in this way?

Is this fact or assumption?

Did you ask why they acted in this way or were you basing this on how you would have felt or perhaps on information fed to you by a third party?

On reflection consider:

If the incident really was as significant as you initially thought or was it more or less so?

Strategies you could put in place to prevent a similar issue in the future.

To be able to do this you have to take some responsibility either for the event happening or for the way in which you reacted.

There are two main purposes of this activity:

  1. to enable you to identify past experiences that you can use to help you improve future experiences.
  2. to enable you to become familiar with the reflective process

If you wish to develop this activity further obtain a text on reflection and read in preparation for reflecting as a student.


Activity 9 Identifying the Challenges

The purpose of this activity is to encourage you to consider the challenges that both you and other students will face at University. It is possible that you may feel that this is difficult particularly in identifying strategies to improve unknown difficulties but by spending some time on this activity you will begin to see how it is possible to improve by anticipating and preparing for challenging events. Of course each student is an individual with very special needs and attributes; you will though, find that other students come up with very similar challenges to you. There are some outline examples in the template, add in detail and further challenges as appropriate to you.

The Challenges


What are the challenges that are likely to face me as a student?

How do I know how/what to do to enable me to work through those challenges?

How can I encourage others to meet the challenges?

To develop myself and others to be confident, competent and capable

What do I need to know?

How can I engage in change?

How can I identify my own strengths and encourage others to value them?

To develop support networks to help me both academically and socially through the student journey.

What support might I need?

How can I best utilise this support?

Reading List

Each module has a list of essential textbooks to which you will make reference. Most will be available in the University Learning Centre. It would be useful for you to do some background reading before starting the programme.

Books to browse prior to starting are:

JohnS C Engaging Reflection in Practice: A Narrative Approach Publisher Blackwell

Palastanga N Soames R Field D Anatomy and Human Movement: Structure and Function (Physiotherapy Essentials) Publisher Churchill Livingstone

Porter, S., Tidy's Physiotherapy Edition 13, Publisher Elsevier, ISBN: 0750632119

Porter, S., Dictionary of Physiotherapy, Publisher Elsevier, ISBN-13: 978-0-7506-8833-8

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